Coffee is a plant that belongs to the Rubiaceae family.Coffee trees (Coffea) with white flowers and beautiful red or purple colored fruits have two pieces of beans in their core. There are more than 80 different varieties of beans that are known on earth
Different types of coffee trees provide different characteristics of coffee beans. The most popular ones are:
Coffea arabica, Coffea benghalensis, Coffea canephora, Coffea congensis, Coffea excelsa, Coffea gallienii, Coffea bonnieri, Coffea mogeneti, Coffea liberica, and Coffea stenophylla.
Among those different types of beans; Coffea Arabica and Coffea Canephora are the most popular ones. Throughout the world, those two types constitute 90 percent of the coffee bean market.
Arabica coffee which is the oldest known coffee , grown at an altitude of 3000-6000 feet. Arabica trees produces 11lbs fruits and one can obtain 2lbs of coffee beans from those fruits. Compared to Robusta, Arabica beans are big, contains less caffeine and more delicious.
Arabica coffee generates 70% of world production. Due to those beans are sensitive to cold weather conditions, it is hard and costly to protect and plant them. Therefore, Arabica beans are more expensive than Robusta beans.
The most widely traded Arabica beans are Bourbon (Brazil, Middle East, Africa, India and Indonesia) and Typica (Latin America) . Some other types of Arabica beans are as follows: Blue Mountain, Mundo Novo, Caturra, Tico, and San Ramon.
Coffea Canephora (Robusta)
Robusta grows in lower altitude (up to 2000 feet) compared to Arabica, Robusta florescence randomly and irregularly. It also ripens once in a year and has caffeine twice as much. The most common types of Robusta are Java-Ineac, Nana, Kouliou and Congensis.
Generally, Robusta is used in soluble coffee and mix. Robusta is grown in Vietnam, Western and Central Africa, Southeast Asia and Brazil. The one which is grown in Brazil is called Conillon. All of the Robusta beans are subject to the dry process and also the yield of Robusta is higher than Arabica.
Due to its resistance against cold weather conditions, it is easier and cheaper to culture the Robusta beans. Therefore, there is a high demand of growth to produce those beans.
Especially, in Vietnam, robusta production has recently reached unbelievable rates. Due to the high demand in robusta production, there is an increase in the amount of inexpensive robusta coffee blend mix with other types. Coffee lovers criticize this situation severely.
Besides those two popular ones, Maragogype exists in Bahia, Brazil. The name comes from the small town of Maragogype located in Bahia. Maragogype has the largest beans throughout the world.
Unfortunately, because of the low productivity, those trees can not be regenerated and so there is a reduction in the number of those trees day by day.
In 1843, Coffea Liberica (known as Liberica) discovered in Liberia. Liberica is the third ranked coffee tree among bean market in terms of its popularity, planting and farming. Liberica coffee tree is a strong and large tree. It can be grown widely in Malaysia and West Africa. No matter how big the beans are, the taste is not as good as the other ones. Therefore we can implement that there is no correlation between the size of the bean and its taste.
Consequently, experts have a genius idea! The idea of the combination of the good sides of Arabica (the taste) and Robusta (the resistance and robustness)! Therefore, the experts hybrid those two different type of beans and create a new type in order to reach the ultimate quality and taste.
From the raw fruit till it is ready in the cup, the most important part of the process is “Roasting”. Even one mistake may ruin all. Roasting is an art and not all people can handle this process. In order to prevent the risk of devastating all work, the experts start work with a sample and they keep on the process based on the feedback from the sample. The major difference through the process is “the change of the color that the bean turned into from green to brown.”
Due to there are more than 2000 chemicals in a coffee bean, the outcome of the chemical reaction that any bean is exposed of heat can bounce out many elements and also can absorb as well. It changes based on the roasting period. It is highly prohibited that the time should be shortened in order to keep the different flavors that the bean has. Otherwise, it may all be gone.
However, the light roasting with low heat is not preferred by the traders because dark roasting can cover many mistakes by burning all the different flavors. Coffee lovers can taste easily all the flavors if it is light roasted. The fundamental rule in the roasting is “it shouldn’t be roasted too much in terms of dark roasting”. No matter the bean is high or low quality, with the dark roasting, it will give the same taste. Thus, good quality Arabica coffeas should be light roasted in order to taste the delicious flavor.
Last but not least, after roasting, the beans should be cooled immediately. Otherwise, the beans will keep on roasting with their heat. With a cyclical movement, the beans should be cooled in an open case. It shouldn’t be isolated. In addition to that, the beans should be grinded after 12 hour rest.
After 12 hour rest, the beans are ready to be grinded. Throughout the world, the most finely ground form of Turkish Coffee is Turkish Grind or micro grind / ultrafine grind. The grinding can be made based upon one’s own unique taste. Due to everyone is in their own individual tastes and preference, some may choose it as medium grinded or else. There are many device options for the grinding process and also it is not as tricky as the roasting. The major step in grinding is to choose the right machine. As we mentioned details in the “Turkish Coffee Grinders”, you can easily choose your own and find out your own preference.
How to keep it fresh?
Coffee is very sensitive towards external factors, we have to take care of it carefully. We have to take preventions. So what should we do? First of all, the easiest way is to prevent is buying less but frequently. However, it is not a big deal if you don’t have that much access to buy frequently. There are still many ways. The first step is it shouldn’t take any sunlight. It should be kept in a dark and dry place. No Moisture or humidity. They are the enemies of coffee. Moreover, keeping it in a dry and cool place doesn’t mean that it should be kept in the refrigerator. The refrigerator also is not good for the coffee. It may change the taste of the coffee as well.